تيماء تحت الحكم الكلداني في عصر الملك نابونيد
تضرب علاقة تيماء ببلاد النهرين جذورها في عمق التاريخ حيث بدأت منذ أواخر الألف الثاني قبل الميلاد ، عندما ربطت العلاقات التجارية بينهما ثم تطورت تلك العلاقات لتتخذ صورا أخرى كان اكثرها وضوحا في اواخر عصر الدولة الكلدانية ،وذلك عندما استقر الملك نابونيد اخر ملوكها في تيماء لعقد من الزمن ويعد هذا الأمر حدثا فريدا في تاريخ الشرق الادنى القديم حيث لم يحدث ان ترك ملك اتسم بالقوة والحنكة السياسية مثل الملك المذكور دولته ليقيم بعيد عنها وبمعزل عن الاحداث التي تجري بداخلها وفي المناطق المحيطة بها لتلك الفترة الطويلة.The relationship between Timaa’ and Mesopotamia is extensively deeply-rooted as it started since the late second millennium B.C. when commercial relations between them began to cultivate then develop to find different manifestations, most obviously in the end of the Chaldean Age. Then King Nabonidus , The last Babylonian King’ for a decade or so, which is considered a unique event in the history of the Ancient Near East. None of the powerful tactful kings have ever left their countries to stay out of them totally isolated from what is happening inside them and their surroundings for such a long period of time. This new event in the ancient history of the region disposed researchers towards considering King Nabonidus’s and The ancient history of North Arabia. have tried to suggested some religious, economic and political motives that most probably stood behind this event and changed the course of such relation between Timaa’ and Mesopotamia particularly. However, most of the researchers presented the above-mentioned motives separately not collectively without studying them in the light of an inspection of King Nabonidus’s character and Timaa’ area as well as North Arabia so as to extrapolate the possible events that happened at the time and explicate them accordingly, which this research attempts at doing. This paper is aimsat for making such an attempt, lumping the suggested motives and highlighting the strong as well as weak points of each. It is worth mentioning, it has reached some new findings through which it is possible to illuminate the reasons behind King Nabonidus’s abandoning Babylon and his staying in Timaa’ for ten years which must have been on-going as the nature of events asserted besides Babylon’s and Timaa’s engravings in the time of the study. The research also stresses the issue of the Chaldean cultural effects that grew to exist in Timaa’ realized in King Nabonidus and his companions and the results yielded by the mutual contact between Babylon and Timaa’ then. Such effects revealed themselves in the different monuments such as civil architecture( the fence and the palace) and religious (the palace’s temple) as well as in the pottery, censers and obelisks found in Timaa’ with all the scenery and religious symbols equivalent to those of Mesopotamia.