The cutting‑edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: a systematic review
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Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand‑alone trusted platform for surgical education and training.However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost‑effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world‑class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Materials and Methods: Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms “Laparoscopic surgery” and “Surgical training” and “Surgical curriculum” and “fundamentals of endoscopic surgery” and “fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery” and “Telementoring” and “Box trainer.” The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Results: Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting‑edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation‑based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic‑assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension‑free environment without supervision or time constraints. Conclusion: The existing world‑renowned surgical training centers employ various clusters of training tools that essentially endeavor to embed the acquisition of knowledge and technical skills. However, a unified training curriculum that may be accepted worldwide is currently not available.